Monday, August 18, 2008

Motivation



Organization excellence begins with the performance of people. It is what people do or do not do ultimately determines what the organization can or cannot become. It is their dedication and commitment to organizational purposes that make the difference. Whether organizational goals can be achieved it depends on the willingness of the people to make the necessary contributions. It is the performance of people that is the true benchmark of organizational performance.

The job of the manager is to develop and promote behavioral patterns that are consistent to the achievement of goals. This would b have been a simple matter if people could be merely told to do what should be done. Unfortunately, it does not work that way. People are human beings, not machines. Their actions are, to say the least, multi- determined.

The issues is not to tell, but to motivate people. To motivate toward excellence performance is the primary task of the manager. To do that, he needs to understand and recognize what motivates people.

This chapter looks on to the nature of motivation first, followed by a discussion of the traditional approaches to motivation based on needs and drives. Subsequently, behavior behavior modification is presented. The role of expectation as well as impact of fairness of the reward structure on motivation are also presented. This chapter deals mainly with individual motivation and behavior. In the next chapter, the emphasis will be on group behavior.

The nature of motivation

Anyone who is explicitly concerned with the actions of people to certain things but not others? Why do people act the way they do? How can people be encourage to act in productive ways? If we assume that people do not behave in a random fashion, we must look for answers in what motivate people. Motivation refers to the why and cost of behavior.

Motivation energizes behavior and gives it direction. A motivated person will work harder and persevere longer than an unmotivated one. The level of intensity and persistence of the motivated person will be higher. A motivated athlete will endure long hours of practice daily than the one that is not. Yet, motivation also directs behavior. A hungry man is motivated to seek food and to eat. In this sense, motivation is like a vector quantity in physics. It has both magnitude and direction.

Almost all human behavior is motivated, caused, as well as directed. People act because something caused it. But their actions will not be aimless. There must be a direction. Motivation is the strength of the drive toward an action. Motivation refers to a whole class of drive toward an action. Motivation refers to a whole class of drives, needs, and similar forces that prompt a person to act in a certain way or to develop a tendency for specific behavior.

Some theories on motivation suggest that it is ad hoc, short time, and fleeting. What motivates a person now ceases to motivate him later since needs, values and environmental change. While this concept may be true sometimes, it should not be overlooked and denied that people from habits and it has been rightly said that a man is a bundle of habits. A habit is something that makes a person do what he does almost instinctively. It is an internal force that strongly influences how the person responds to stimuli, including motivation techniques. In the case of Filipinos, there is a notion on “ katutubong ugali” ( native character) which give rise to the expression “ lalabas ang natural” ( one's nature shows). These internalized and inculcated habits are difficult to removed. They also consiotute an internal force for motivation.

Broadly speaking, when a manager motivates his subordinates it means that he structures the work environment in such a way that their drives and needs are brought into play, instead of being neglected. This environment should be conducive to the satisfaction of those drives and needs so that workers may act in desired ways.

A basic Motivation Model

Internal needs and drive produce some imbalance in the individual's internal state. The imbalance creates tension and discomfort in the form of hunger. He Identifies goals and take some effort to fulfill his goals. He examines the external environment to determine alternative foods that will relieve his hunger. He may then decide to drive to a fast food restaurant or go home to eat some food. The action, if successful, produces need satisfaction and current behavior is ended. The individual then turns his attention to some other activity. Otherwise, there is need frustration. The individual may continue to engage in other action until a particular needs is satisfied.

The motivational model can be seen as a chain of various elements therein as links. Needs create tension which stimulate effort to perform. Rewards are received that bring about satisfaction. Needs satisfaction complete the chain and provide the feedback mechanism that control both the intensity and direction of behavio.

Many human needs are biological in origin. These are the primary needs which are essential for the survival of the person . These consist of the needs for food, water, sleep, and so on. However, there are also social and psychological needs. These are the secondary needs which are learned and acquired as a person matures. The desires for esteem, status, and fulfillment are some of these kinds of needs.

Monday, August 4, 2008

Sun Wu Tzu Biography

Sun Tzu, Chinese general, circa 500 B.C. A collection of essays on The art of war is attributed to Sun Tzu. There are a growing number of translations of this Chinese classic, usually titled The Art of War.

Knowledge of Sun Tzu reached Europe shortly before the French Revolution in the form of a summary translation by Father J. J. M. Amiot, a French Jesuit priest. In the various translations, Sun Tzu is sometimes referred to as Sun Wu, and Sun Tzi. The most fundamental of Sun Tzu's principles for the conduct of war is that "All warfare is based on deception". Another key Sun Tzu principle is that "The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting." Sun Tzu's ideas spread to the rest of Asia and to Japan.

The works of Sun Tzu have been widely known in the United States since the mid-1970s. Diplomat Henry Kissinger has made reference to Sun Tzu and the principles for the conduct of warfare has been the subject of serious study in U.S. military circles for many years. The Art of War as applied to business, sports, diplomacy and personal lives has been popularized in American business and management texts. Sun Tzu may be the most frequently quoted Chinese personality in the world today.

Quotations

It is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will not be imperilled in a hundred battles; if you do not know your enemies but do know yourself, you will win one and lose one; if you do not know your enemies nor yourself, you will be imperilled in every single battle.

The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand.

Five Characteristics of a good general:

1) Wisdom

2) Sincerity

3) Benevolence

4) Courage

5) Strictness

Five Characteristics that could afflict a general:

1) If reckless, he can be kill

2) If cowardly, he can be captured;

3) If quick-tempered, he can be easily provoked;

4) If sensitive to honor, he can be easily insulted; and

5) If over-compassionate to the people; he can easily be harassed

Sunday, July 27, 2008

Lao Tzu Biography

The main source of information on Lao Tzu's life is a biography written by the historian Ssu-ma Ch'ien (145–86 B.C.E.) in his Records of the Historian. By this time a number of traditions or beliefs about the founder of Chinese Taoism were going around, and Ssu-ma Ch'ien himself was unsure of their authenticity. The biography in fact contains an account of not one but three men called Lao Tzu.

The first Lao Tzu was a man named Li Erh or Li Tan, who came from the village of Ch'├╝jen in the southern Chinese state of Ch'u. Li Erh served as historian in charge of the official records in the Chinese imperial capital of Loyang. He was a peer of the famous Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 B.C.E.), and he is reported to have given an interview to Confucius when he came to Loyang seeking information on the Chou ritual.

Another man identified as the founder of Taoism was Lao Lai Tzu, who also came from Ch'u. He is said to be a person of the same age as Confucius and is credited with a fifteen-chapter book explaining the teachings of the Taoist school. Nothing more is known about the second Lao Tzu.

According to a third account, the original Lao Tzu lived 129 years after the death of Confucius. This man went by the name of Tan, the historian of Chou. Actually, it is impossible to prove the historical accuracy of any of these accounts. Lao Tzu is not really a person's name and is only a complimentary name meaning "old man." It was common in this period to refer to respected philosophers and teachers with words meaning "old" or "mature." It is possible that a man who assumed the pseudonym (assumed name) Lao Tzu was a historical person, but the term Lao Tzu also was used as a substitute title to the supreme Taoist classic, Tao te ching (Classic of the Way and the Power).

According to Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Lao Tzu had been serving in the Chou capital for a long time. He became unhappy with the dishonest political situation and decided to go into retirement. As he was passing through the Hanku Pass west of Loyang, the gate-keeper stopped him and asked him to write down a book of his teachings. Lao Tzu then composed a book of five thousand sayings in two sections that described the theory of the tao and te. This book was then known as the Tao te ching.

Lao Tzu is frequently associated with the other famous early Chinese thinker, Confucius. There are numerous stories about debates that supposedly took place between these two great philosophers in which Lao Tzu was always the winner. These stories are undoubtedly anti-Confucian publicity circulated by members of the Taoist school, perhaps as early as the fourth century B.C.E.

Tao te ching

Lao Tzu's Tao te ching itself is a collection of sayings describing the principal Taoist teachings. Most scholars now agree that Lao Tzu did not write this book, mainly because no one knows whether he was a historical person. The most convincing theory is that there were a large number of proverbs (wise sayings) that were part of the Taoist teaching. They were memorized and passed on from teacher to pupil. Eventually the best of these sayings were collected and edited into the book, which was then given the title Tao te ching. A study of the style and grammar of the work reveals that it must have been put together around the fourth century B.C.E.

Lao Tzu's Tao te ching has confused its readers for centuries. Its language is extremely short and unclear. Much of the text is rhymed. Although the work is divided into chapters, the passages in a chapter do not always refer to the same subject. Thus, it hardly qualifies as a well-organized book of philosophical teachings.

The most important concept developed in Lao Tzu's Tao te ching is tao. Tao literally means "road" or "way." In the Tao te ching it is portrayed as something that cannot be expressed, a concept beyond definition. "The way (tao) that can be told of is not the constant way." Tao is so indescribable that the term itself is often not used and is referred to only indirectly. Tao stands as the force behind the universe. There is even an indication that it is the universe itself.

An important quality of the tao is its "weakness," or "submissiveness." Because the tao itself is basically weak and submissive, it is best for man to put himself in harmony with the tao. Thus, the Tao te ching places strong emphasis on nonaction (wu wei), which means the absence of aggressive action. Man should not strive for wealth or fame, and violence is to be avoided. This peaceful approach to life was extremely influential in later periods and led to the development of a particular Taoist way of living that involved special breathing exercises and special eating habits that were designed to maintain calmness and harmony with the tao.

Quotations

Be Content with what you have; rejoice in the way things are. When you realize there is nothing lacking, the whole world belongs to you.

Do the difficult things while they are easy and do the great things while they are small. A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step.

Self-improvements

In life every person want to change their outlook. It is one of the best approaches to be considered. Improving a persons outlook in life requires a long to implement. The person must be willing for change in order to achieve it. Nobody is perfect in life but if the person is well motivated and determined he definite succeed.

The question now is “ Is there a much more efficient way in improving a persons outlook in life?” Yes there are plenty of ways to do so. One of which is auto suggestion. It is a process in which a person deceives its mind thinking that he can achieve a certain goal given a period of time. In history auto suggestion is used in some propaganda campaign it may either good or evil, this method is very effective. The more you repeat a certain topic over and over in a period of time the person sooner or later will then be convinced that it is the truth even if the campaign is a lie. Adolf Hitler used this method in implementing the final solution. In which he deceives his subjects and the entire European Community that the Jews are evil and they should be eliminated. Those are the bad side of auto suggestion. Auto suggestion also have some good sides this method can influence a persons mind in achieving ones goal. Auto suggestion backed up with faith and determination is a very potent combination in order to achieve ones goal in life. As what Napoleon Hill have said in his book Think and grow rich, states that “ Whatever a mind of a man can conceived and believe it can and will be achieved.” The mind of a person has limitless boundaries for achievement and for success, it is a very powerful instrument to waste. Wasting the mind is a terrible thing to do, a person should consider its value before doing something that might compromise it.

Another method is motivation. It s process in which you convinced a person to do something by means of rewards that satisfy their needs satisfaction. It is also and effective method in improving a persons outlook. Once a person is well motivated, he will do anything that is bound by the law or sometimes not in order to achieve a certain goal. Motivation is very helpful in an organization. When the members of a certain organization is well motivated to achieve a certain goal. The organization is bound for success, but without it it is bound for failure.

Life is a never ending struggle only the one who has the courage will survive. During tribulations it is your outlook in life that will make you succeed if you think positive into something there is a tendency for it to be fulfilled. In life it is not always the strong or the fastest who win, but the man who thinks that he can despite the odds he is facing. So give everything so that if everything will fall into place, you will have no regrets.