Monday, August 18, 2008


Organization excellence begins with the performance of people. It is what people do or do not do ultimately determines what the organization can or cannot become. It is their dedication and commitment to organizational purposes that make the difference. Whether organizational goals can be achieved it depends on the willingness of the people to make the necessary contributions. It is the performance of people that is the true benchmark of organizational performance.

The job of the manager is to develop and promote behavioral patterns that are consistent to the achievement of goals. This would b have been a simple matter if people could be merely told to do what should be done. Unfortunately, it does not work that way. People are human beings, not machines. Their actions are, to say the least, multi- determined.

The issues is not to tell, but to motivate people. To motivate toward excellence performance is the primary task of the manager. To do that, he needs to understand and recognize what motivates people.

This chapter looks on to the nature of motivation first, followed by a discussion of the traditional approaches to motivation based on needs and drives. Subsequently, behavior behavior modification is presented. The role of expectation as well as impact of fairness of the reward structure on motivation are also presented. This chapter deals mainly with individual motivation and behavior. In the next chapter, the emphasis will be on group behavior.

The nature of motivation

Anyone who is explicitly concerned with the actions of people to certain things but not others? Why do people act the way they do? How can people be encourage to act in productive ways? If we assume that people do not behave in a random fashion, we must look for answers in what motivate people. Motivation refers to the why and cost of behavior.

Motivation energizes behavior and gives it direction. A motivated person will work harder and persevere longer than an unmotivated one. The level of intensity and persistence of the motivated person will be higher. A motivated athlete will endure long hours of practice daily than the one that is not. Yet, motivation also directs behavior. A hungry man is motivated to seek food and to eat. In this sense, motivation is like a vector quantity in physics. It has both magnitude and direction.

Almost all human behavior is motivated, caused, as well as directed. People act because something caused it. But their actions will not be aimless. There must be a direction. Motivation is the strength of the drive toward an action. Motivation refers to a whole class of drive toward an action. Motivation refers to a whole class of drives, needs, and similar forces that prompt a person to act in a certain way or to develop a tendency for specific behavior.

Some theories on motivation suggest that it is ad hoc, short time, and fleeting. What motivates a person now ceases to motivate him later since needs, values and environmental change. While this concept may be true sometimes, it should not be overlooked and denied that people from habits and it has been rightly said that a man is a bundle of habits. A habit is something that makes a person do what he does almost instinctively. It is an internal force that strongly influences how the person responds to stimuli, including motivation techniques. In the case of Filipinos, there is a notion on “ katutubong ugali” ( native character) which give rise to the expression “ lalabas ang natural” ( one's nature shows). These internalized and inculcated habits are difficult to removed. They also consiotute an internal force for motivation.

Broadly speaking, when a manager motivates his subordinates it means that he structures the work environment in such a way that their drives and needs are brought into play, instead of being neglected. This environment should be conducive to the satisfaction of those drives and needs so that workers may act in desired ways.

A basic Motivation Model

Internal needs and drive produce some imbalance in the individual's internal state. The imbalance creates tension and discomfort in the form of hunger. He Identifies goals and take some effort to fulfill his goals. He examines the external environment to determine alternative foods that will relieve his hunger. He may then decide to drive to a fast food restaurant or go home to eat some food. The action, if successful, produces need satisfaction and current behavior is ended. The individual then turns his attention to some other activity. Otherwise, there is need frustration. The individual may continue to engage in other action until a particular needs is satisfied.

The motivational model can be seen as a chain of various elements therein as links. Needs create tension which stimulate effort to perform. Rewards are received that bring about satisfaction. Needs satisfaction complete the chain and provide the feedback mechanism that control both the intensity and direction of behavio.

Many human needs are biological in origin. These are the primary needs which are essential for the survival of the person . These consist of the needs for food, water, sleep, and so on. However, there are also social and psychological needs. These are the secondary needs which are learned and acquired as a person matures. The desires for esteem, status, and fulfillment are some of these kinds of needs.

Monday, August 4, 2008

Sun Wu Tzu Biography

Sun Tzu, Chinese general, circa 500 B.C. A collection of essays on The art of war is attributed to Sun Tzu. There are a growing number of translations of this Chinese classic, usually titled The Art of War.

Knowledge of Sun Tzu reached Europe shortly before the French Revolution in the form of a summary translation by Father J. J. M. Amiot, a French Jesuit priest. In the various translations, Sun Tzu is sometimes referred to as Sun Wu, and Sun Tzi. The most fundamental of Sun Tzu's principles for the conduct of war is that "All warfare is based on deception". Another key Sun Tzu principle is that "The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting." Sun Tzu's ideas spread to the rest of Asia and to Japan.

The works of Sun Tzu have been widely known in the United States since the mid-1970s. Diplomat Henry Kissinger has made reference to Sun Tzu and the principles for the conduct of warfare has been the subject of serious study in U.S. military circles for many years. The Art of War as applied to business, sports, diplomacy and personal lives has been popularized in American business and management texts. Sun Tzu may be the most frequently quoted Chinese personality in the world today.


It is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will not be imperilled in a hundred battles; if you do not know your enemies but do know yourself, you will win one and lose one; if you do not know your enemies nor yourself, you will be imperilled in every single battle.

The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand.

Five Characteristics of a good general:

1) Wisdom

2) Sincerity

3) Benevolence

4) Courage

5) Strictness

Five Characteristics that could afflict a general:

1) If reckless, he can be kill

2) If cowardly, he can be captured;

3) If quick-tempered, he can be easily provoked;

4) If sensitive to honor, he can be easily insulted; and

5) If over-compassionate to the people; he can easily be harassed